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Eisbär Flocke Nürnberg Blog » Eisbär

Eisbär


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Der Eisbär (Ursus maritimus) ist das bekannteste Tier des Nordpolargebietes. Er ist mit einer Körpergröße von bis zu 2,8 m und einem Gewicht von bis zu 800 KG das größte Landraubtier der Welt. Es gibt auf der Welt etwa 20.000 bis 25.000 Tiere. Ihre Zahl hat in den letzten Jahren durch Schutzmaßnahmen und Jagdverbot wieder zugenommen. Der Bestand gilt aber als gefährdet, da durch die Klimaerwärmung und durch Förderung von Erdöl und Erdgas der Lebensraum  sich drastisch verringert.

Die meisten Eisbären sind in der Küstenregion oder auf dem Eis um Robben zu jagen. Sie kommen zumeist auf Grönland, in Kanada und Alaska sowie im nördlichen Sibirien auf. Es gibt Eisbären, die im Jahr Wanderungen bis zu 1.000 km wandern, andere Bären sind sehr standorttreu.

Eisbären sind tagesaktiv und verbringen 2/3 des Tages mit Schlafen und Ruhen, nur 1/20 mit Jagen und Fressen sowie 3/10 mit Schwimmen und Wandern. Eisbären sind Einzelgänger. Nur zur Paarungszeit von einer Woche treffen sich Männchen und Weibchen. Nach ca. 8 Monaten bekommt die Mutter 1 bis 4 Junge. Ein Monat vor der Geburt sucht sich die Mutter ein Geburtshöhle. Die kleinen Bären sind bei der Geburt nur 400 bis 900 g schwer, blind und taub. Die Jungen nehmen schnell zu und haben nach ca. 2 Monaten bereits 10-15 Kg erreicht. Erst nach vier Monaten verläßt die Mutter mit den Kindern die Geburtshöhle. Die Jungen werden bis zu 2 1/2 Jahre von der Mutter gesäugt. Die Mutter muss die Jungen vor männlichen Eisbären schützen, da diese Kannibalen sind und junge Eisbären fressen.

Eisenbären ernähren sich von Robben, Fische, Vögel, Kleinsäuger aber auch von Kadaver von verendeten Tieren und Beeren und Seetang. Bei guten Futterangebot fressen sie sich einen Fettvorrat an und können danach 8 bis 12 Monate fasten. Im Gegensatz zu den anderen Bären halten sie keinen Winterschlaf. Das Alter eines Bären in freier Wildbahn beträgt bis zu 30 Jahren. In der Gefangenschaft bis zu 45 Jahren.  In einigen Zoos werden Eisbären erfolgreich gehalten und bekommen auch Nachwuchs. Falls eine natürliche Aufzucht nicht gewährleistet ist, übernimmt der Mensch die Aufgaben der Mutter.

Im Jahr 2007 wurde die Welt durch den kleinen Knut (Berliner Zoo) wieder auf die Eisbären und dessen Zukunftprobleme aufmerksam. Zur Zeit wird im Nürnberger Zoo versucht ein weibliches Eisbärbaby mit der Flasche aufzuziehen. Wir berichten ständig über die Entwicklung der noch namenlosen Eisbärdame.

  

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